Archive for December, 2011

Impact of Invasive Ant Species in Shaping Ant Community Structure on Small Islands in Indonesia

Akhmad Rizali, Abdul Rahim, Bandung Sahari, Lilik Budi Prasetyo, &
Damayanti Buchori

Aim Comparisons among islands offer the opportunity to study the effects of biotic and abiotic factors on small, replicated biological communities. Smaller population sizes on islands accelerate some ecological processes, which may decrease the time needed for perturbations to affect community composition. We surveyed ants on 18 small, tropical islands to determine the effects of island size, isolation from the mainland, and habitat disturbance on ant community composition.

Location Thousand Islands Archipelago (Indonesian Name: Kepulauan Seribu)

(Full paper can be downloaded here)

C0MPARATIVE STUDY ON DECENTRALIZATION & PRIVATIZATION OF FOREST MANAGEMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Foreword (by. Prof. Misa Masuda,  Tsukuba University)

This research project was conducted from April 2001 to March 2005. We selected three countries to study: China as a case of centralized forest administration system, India as a case of decentralized one, and Indonesia as a case in transition. These three countries alone indeed have dominated the world’s population, 40.1 percent in 2002 (UNDP, 2004), while the total land area and forest cover accounting for 10.8 percent and 6.0 percent respectively in 2000 (FAO, 2001). How to realize the compatibleness of growing population pressure and the scarcity of natural resources have been one of the key issues for developing countries, and the outcome of the policy measures of these three countries may affect not only the domestic environments but also the environments of surrounding countries.

The members of this project have diverse specialties: forest economics, political science, social ecology, forest ecology, and soil ecology in regard to the discipline, and also various research careers in Asia, Africa, and South America. Therefore, the results could not be compiled as an interdisciplinary study on specified topic and location.

Although the discussions are incomplete and many data still remain unprocessed, yet it is expected to be helpful leads to finding impacts of the ongoing political process of decentralization or centralization. Decentralization as a whole has been urged since longer before, and recent  tones on forest

(full report can be downloaded here)

Master Thesis : Sustainable Management of Forest By Enhancing The Value of Medicinal Plants: A Case Study in Gunung Walat Educational Forest, Bogor Agricultural University

Ellyn Kathalina Damayanti, E.Amzu, LB.Prasetyo

Gunung Walat Educational Forest (GWEF) is one of field laboratories of Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Indonesia.  Faculty of Forestry is the manager and has been searching some sustainable ways to manage the forest.  Unfortunately, there are lack of basic information on GWEF, especially related to biological diversity resources.  The thesis is aimed at completing the basic information of GWEF. Especially on medicinal plant and establishing a sustainable management model of GWEF and mechanisms of reward for environmental service provided by surrounding communities.

The field research was at Gunung Walat Educational Forest, conducted from May to July 2002.  Data analysis, literature study and thesis writing were conducted in university of Tsukuba (Japan), from September 2002 to July 2003.  Method used were: (1) forest-floor vegetation analysis, (2) interview with surrounding community and stackholders, and (3) Geographical Information System (GIS).

Gunung Walat Educational Forest is a 350 ha-hanmad forest, which consist of 6 major tree stands from genus Pinus, Acacia, Schima, Agathis, Swietenia and Albizzia.  The forest-floor Vegetation Analysis resulted in 85 species of forest-floor vegetation, which belong to 46 families.  Seventy species of them belong to medicinal pants.  According to the interview with surrounding communities, there are 177 species of plants they use for medicines.  Only 20 species are found in GWEF, but they utilize only 3 species from GWEF : Achasma megalocheilos Griff. For asthma, costus speciosus (Koen) J.E. Smith for rheumatism, diabetes, diuretic, etc., and Selaginella plana Hieron for treatment after giving birth.  Interview with stakeholders: Manager  of GWEF, Local Government Research and Planning Agency, forestry Service, and Health Service of Sukabumi regency, surrounding community, and visitors resulted in their opinion that GWEF must be conserved and best utilized as a sustainable tourism area.  Mapping with GIS resulted in spatial distribution of medicinal plant in GWEF.  Each stand has a specific realtion with medicinal plant found.  Pinus stand has the most various medicinal plants due to its large size 110,5 ha.

Sustainable Management Model of GWEF offered in the thesis is how to utilized medicinal plants in this area so that GWEF can increase their income and support their daily management, and how to involve surrounding community so they can gain benefit from the forest.  There are 3 suggested activities for the model: (1) cultivation of medicinal plants, (2) introduction of medicinal plant’s home industry, and (3) promotion of eco-tourism.  Location for cultivation of medicinal plants are (1) in bare-land area of GWEF, about 22 ha, for cultivation of Zingiber officinale Roxb., Curcuma domestica Val., Alpina galangal (L). Swartz, and collection of Imperata cylindrical Ness.; and (2) in agroforestry area, about 100 ha, for amomum cardamomum L., Centella asiatica (L) Urb., Piper betle L., piper ningrum L., and Piper retrofractum Val.  These species are chosen based on their ecological relation to GWEF, their medicinal values, needed by Indonesia Traditional Medicine Industries, and familiar to surrounding communities.  Eco-tourism is the most suggested activity in GWEF for its landscape, history and functions.  Medicinal plant knowledge and home industry wrapped in eco-tourism will become aa interesting package of eco-tourism program in GWEF.

Eco-tourism is a type of mechanisms of rewards for environmental services provided by surrounding communities.  In eco-tourism program, the agroforestry farmers who cultitave various species of medicinal and agricultural plants are identified as one of environmental service (ES) providers/sellers together with copal collectors, and the rest of surrounding communities.  The beneficiaries/buyers of ES are the tourists.  The manager of GWEF is the intermediary and with support from NGO and donor bodies, eco-tourism program as mechanism of rewards will benefit surrounding communities, so they will continue providing the ES and at the same time preserving, protecting, and conserving GWEF.

Correspondence Author : Ellyn K.Damayanti (e11yn.d4mayanti@gmail.com or http://ellynk.damayanti.staff.ipb.ac.id)

Gap Analysis in Javan Hawk-Eagle (Spizaetus bartelsi) Conservation

Kuswandono,  Arzyana Sunkar, Lilik Budi Prasetyo, Usep Suparman and Adam  A. Supriatna

A management approach to conserve the Endangered Javan Hawk-Eagle (Spizaetus bartelsi) which is different from the already existing conservation approach, has been studied. The study had been conducted since December 2009 to February 2010 in Gede-Pangrango National Park, Telaga Warna Nature Reserve, and its surrounding forested areas. All study areas are in West
Java. The objectives of the study are: 1) to identify stakeholders closely related to the Javan Hawk-Eagle conservation efforts, 2) to identify relevant regulation related to the Javan Hawk-Eagle conservation efforts, 3) to understand the stakeholders performance in relation to the Javan Hawk-Eagle conservation efforts, 4) to find out the possible gaps in conservation efforts of the species, and 5) to identify factors causing the gap. Primary data were collected using in-depth interview and field observation while secondary data were collected through study of relevant references. Stakeholders were identified through snowball method. I conducted spatial analysis, stakeholder identification analysis, content analysis, and gap analysis. Results of the study recognized two conservation management approaches: 1) species level and 2) habitat level. These approaches will effectively conserve the existing fragmented and less protected forest blocks as well as boosting the participation and synergism of many stakeholders. Further, by using this approach, a gap in conservation management among local conservation agencies will also be discussed for the benefit of the Javan Hawk-Eagle in particular and for biodiversity in general.

Correspondence author : kuswandono@gmail.com

Keywords: conservation, gap analysis, Javan Hawk-Eagle, management.

Will be presented in the Symposium 7th  ARRCN (Asian Raptor Research & Conservation Network) in Korea (12-16 Januari 2012)

Dissertation : Sustainability Analysis of Community Forest Management in Protected Area: case study at Kuningan District, West Java Province

Alan Purbawiyatna, Hariadi Kartodihardjo, Hadi S. Alikodra, Lilik B. Prasetyo

Abstract

Community forest at Kuningan district, West Java province, shown its forest cover improvement at average of 5,86% during 2003-2009. This forest potentially serves as protected area outside state forest in land use plan of Kuningan district. The forestland status is private property whereas for the owner serves as production forest.  The aim of this research is to assess performance of that community forest management using set of criteria and indicators for sustainable community-based forest management developed by the Indonesian Ecolabelling Institute/LEI (2002). The result shows that management practiced fail to fulfill the standard. Nevertheless private property rights of forest land status enabled the owner to invest in forest development for economic benefit, which public perceived has provide a positive impact for environmental services. Lack of technical capacity in forest management and institutional management need to be improved to enable the owner gain economic benefit while provide environmental services for public.

Dissertation : Habitat Suitability & Distribution of Waterbirds in Percut Sei Tuan,North Sumatra

Erni Jumilawaty, Ani Mardiastuti, Lilik B.Prasetyo & Yeni A.Mulyani

Waterbirds in Percut Sei Tuan, North Sumatera had been studied in September 2010 until March 2011.This site which is one of the important birds area in SumateraIsland. The aims of studies to analysiswaterbirds diversity, macrozoobenthos diversity and habitat suitability of waterbirds. A total of 190375 individu and 50 waterbird species belonging to 11 families of 5 orders was recorded. Tanjung Rejo the highest  (164.343) dan Pantai Labu the lowest (6.212) waterbird individu. The highest diversity (H=2.84) was found in Pematang Lalang and lowest (H=1.69) in Tanjung Rejo. The value of evennesswas higher (0.80) in Bagan Percut and Pematang Lalng and lowest (0.48) in Tanjung Rejo. Shorebird was dominan in three location and wading bird dominan in Tanjung Rejo A total of 31.722macrozoobenthos individu and 26 species belonging to 20 families of 5 class was recorded. Silt loam2 (SL2) the highest  (71.45) dan clay loam2 (CL2) the lowest (380) macrozoobenthos individu. The highest diversity (H=2.26) was found in Silt loam4 (SL4) and lowest (H=0.71) in Silt Loam2 (SL2). The value of evennesswas higher (0.86) in Silt Loam (SL4) and Clay Loam and lowest (0.40) in Silt Loam2 (SL2). Three class suitability habitat for waterbirds were classifiedhigh suitable, suitable, unsuitable. Pematang Lalang and Pantai Labuarebest suitability habitat for wading bird and shorebird. Tanjung Rejo did not used to feeding ground for waterbirds. Shorebird have suitable habitat larger than wading bird.

Key Words: Percut Sei Tuan, wetland, waterbirds, diversity, habitat suitability

Dissertation : Effectivity of Roadside Vegetation in Reducing Lead Particle Emitted by Motor Vehicle (Case Study Acacia mangium Greenbelt, Jagorawi Highway)

R. Hermawan, C. KusmanaN. Nasrullah &  L.B. Prasetyo

 Abstract

 Reducing lead concentration in ambient air  is supposed to be affected  by structure of roadside vegetations. One of the structure factors  is number of rows.  The objectives of the research were : (a) to determine the effects of the number of plant rows in reducing lead concentration; (b) to know a capturing pattern of Pb particle on leaves in roadside vegetation; (c)  to study dispersion pattern of Pb particle in surrounding  roadside vegetation. Determining Pb particle concentration were conducted in point emission (roadside), 5 m, 15 m and 30 m behind greenbelt; besides of that, it also was conducted in openspace plot. To know pattern of capturing Pb particle on leaves was conducted to observe on   front and back crown on three tree in  first rows. Interpolation Kriging Method with software ArcGIS9.3.1  was used to arrange dispersion pattern of Pb particle. The results showed that differences of tree row number affected decreasing Pb particle concentration; the more tree row numbers was the greather in reducing Pb particle concentration. There is a trend that further from the roadside, the reducing level of lead concentration is higher.  Pb particle concentration on leaves decrease according to distance from emission sources. Isopleth of Pb particle concentration decrease gradually from emission source.

 Keywords: Pb particle, roadside vegetation, capture