Master Thesis : Sustainable Management of Forest By Enhancing The Value of Medicinal Plants: A Case Study in Gunung Walat Educational Forest, Bogor Agricultural University
|Ellyn Kathalina Damayanti, E.Amzu, LB.Prasetyo
Gunung Walat Educational Forest (GWEF) is one of field laboratories of Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Indonesia. Faculty of Forestry is the manager and has been searching some sustainable ways to manage the forest. Unfortunately, there are lack of basic information on GWEF, especially related to biological diversity resources. The thesis is aimed at completing the basic information of GWEF. Especially on medicinal plant and establishing a sustainable management model of GWEF and mechanisms of reward for environmental service provided by surrounding communities.
The field research was at Gunung Walat Educational Forest, conducted from May to July 2002. Data analysis, literature study and thesis writing were conducted in university of Tsukuba (Japan), from September 2002 to July 2003. Method used were: (1) forest-floor vegetation analysis, (2) interview with surrounding community and stackholders, and (3) Geographical Information System (GIS).
Gunung Walat Educational Forest is a 350 ha-hanmad forest, which consist of 6 major tree stands from genus Pinus, Acacia, Schima, Agathis, Swietenia and Albizzia. The forest-floor Vegetation Analysis resulted in 85 species of forest-floor vegetation, which belong to 46 families. Seventy species of them belong to medicinal pants. According to the interview with surrounding communities, there are 177 species of plants they use for medicines. Only 20 species are found in GWEF, but they utilize only 3 species from GWEF : Achasma megalocheilos Griff. For asthma, costus speciosus (Koen) J.E. Smith for rheumatism, diabetes, diuretic, etc., and Selaginella plana Hieron for treatment after giving birth. Interview with stakeholders: Manager of GWEF, Local Government Research and Planning Agency, forestry Service, and Health Service of Sukabumi regency, surrounding community, and visitors resulted in their opinion that GWEF must be conserved and best utilized as a sustainable tourism area. Mapping with GIS resulted in spatial distribution of medicinal plant in GWEF. Each stand has a specific realtion with medicinal plant found. Pinus stand has the most various medicinal plants due to its large size 110,5 ha.
Sustainable Management Model of GWEF offered in the thesis is how to utilized medicinal plants in this area so that GWEF can increase their income and support their daily management, and how to involve surrounding community so they can gain benefit from the forest. There are 3 suggested activities for the model: (1) cultivation of medicinal plants, (2) introduction of medicinal plant’s home industry, and (3) promotion of eco-tourism. Location for cultivation of medicinal plants are (1) in bare-land area of GWEF, about 22 ha, for cultivation of Zingiber officinale Roxb., Curcuma domestica Val., Alpina galangal (L). Swartz, and collection of Imperata cylindrical Ness.; and (2) in agroforestry area, about 100 ha, for amomum cardamomum L., Centella asiatica (L) Urb., Piper betle L., piper ningrum L., and Piper retrofractum Val. These species are chosen based on their ecological relation to GWEF, their medicinal values, needed by Indonesia Traditional Medicine Industries, and familiar to surrounding communities. Eco-tourism is the most suggested activity in GWEF for its landscape, history and functions. Medicinal plant knowledge and home industry wrapped in eco-tourism will become aa interesting package of eco-tourism program in GWEF.
Eco-tourism is a type of mechanisms of rewards for environmental services provided by surrounding communities. In eco-tourism program, the agroforestry farmers who cultitave various species of medicinal and agricultural plants are identified as one of environmental service (ES) providers/sellers together with copal collectors, and the rest of surrounding communities. The beneficiaries/buyers of ES are the tourists. The manager of GWEF is the intermediary and with support from NGO and donor bodies, eco-tourism program as mechanism of rewards will benefit surrounding communities, so they will continue providing the ES and at the same time preserving, protecting, and conserving GWEF.
Correspondence Author : Ellyn K.Damayanti (firstname.lastname@example.org or http://ellynk.damayanti.staff.ipb.ac.id)