Setelah P. Jawa, maka P. Sumatra merupakan pulau dengan tekanan perubahan lahan yang tinggi. Sejak pendudukan Belanda, konversi hutan menjadi perkebunan telah berlangsung di sini. Dilanjutkan dengan era eksploitasi hutan melalui HPH sejak UU penanaman modal dalam negeri dan asing pada sekitar tahun 1970an (Prasetyo & Minoru, 1995). Berlanjut dengan era reformasi yang dikuti dengan periode otonomi daerah, konversi hutan (deforestasi) terus berlangsung. Deforestasi terjadi di semua fungsi hutan, bahkan kawasan konservasi pun tidak luput dari proses deforestasi ini (Prasetyo et al.2008).
Pada periode 2000 – 2009 (9 tahun) terjadi deforestasi kurang lebih 2 juta hektar, atau 230 ribu hektar per tahun.
Pada grafik pie di atas, hutan pada tahun 2000, 86% masih tetap hutan, 7.23% menjadi belukar (ini mungkin lahan bera pada pola pertanian berpindah) dan 1.8 % untuk perkebunan (Sawit & karet).
Kalau perubahan itu terjadi secara linier (ceteris paribus), maka bisa diramalkan berapa tahun lagi hutan tropis P.Sumatra akan ada ? Apakah bisa diprediksi ? Kalau proses tidak terjadi linier faktor apa yang akan mempengaruhinya ? Apakah akan sama dengan Jawa, sampai lowland forest habis baru deforestasi akan berhenti ? Apakah harus menunggu itu karena konsekuensinya akan sangat mahai… kepunahan species dan…. bencana alam !
Perdebatan Pro Kontra REDD+ diantara rimbawan Indonesia masih terus beralangsung. Pada satu sisi Rimbawan Indonesia menganggap REDD+ adalah bentuk “pendiktean” terhadap Indonesia, di sisi lain ada yang beranggapan REDD+ adalah momentum untuk memperbaiki kehutanan Indonesia. Saya salah satu yang mendukung pendapat kedua,selama REDD+ tidak hanya ditujukan untuk “karbon” tetapi untuk perbaikan kehutanan Indonesia.
Ada beberapa alasan saya berpendapat demikian:
- REDD+ membutuhkan perbaikan kapasitas SDM
- REDD+ membutuhkan data spasial yang standard dan system pengelolaan yang handal.
- REDD+ membutuhkan data kehutanan (potensi tegakan) yang valid.
- REDD+ membutuhkan informasi berbagai peta (tutupan hutan, lahan gambut, peta kawasan hutan, HGU dll) yang valid.
- REDD+ membutuhkan dukungan data penginderaan jauh kontinyu
Satu per satu nampaknya kondisi diatas sedang diperbaiki. Diantaranya adalah (a) Kementrian Kehutanan telah memperbaiki NFI, (b) inisiasi one map (walaupun baru satu propinsi), (c) one licence : Lapan berperan sebagai lembaga yang mempunyai kewenangan untuk pembelian data citra satelit, dan lembaga lain akan dapat memperoleh secara gratis !, untuk itu LAPAN telah meng_upgradi fasilitas receivernya. (d) PIPIB, dll
Satu hal yang ditunggu adalah pendirian LEMBAGA REDD, dan LEMBAGA MRV. Tanpa ada lembaga tersebut mustahil REDD+ bisa berjalan !
Walaupun penyebab perubahan iklim global masih diperdebatkan, sebagian besar scientist yg tergabung ke dalam Intergovermental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) telah sepakat bahwa kenaikan konsentrasi Greenhouse Gases (CO2, CH4, NOx,SOx) adalah yang menjadi penyebabnya. Mereka sepakat melakukan tindakan adaptasi dan mitigasi. Melalui tahapan perundingan dalam sidang Conference On Parties (COP), disetujui berbagai mekanisme mitigasi diantaranya Afforestation Reforestation Clean Development Mechanism (AR/CDM) dan Reduction Emission from Forest Degradation & Deforestation (REDD +). Masa komitmen pertama Protokol Kyoto untuk implementasi CDM berakhir tahun ini dan REDD+ telah memasuki masa readiness.
Setahap demi setahap REDD+ Indonesia mempersiapkan diri, membuat rencana strategi, mempersiapkan system MRV, mempersiapkan Lembaga MRV dan memilih contoh implementasi pada level Propinsi. Walaupun pro dan kontra skema REDD+ masih berlangsung, semoga Kehutanan Indonesia mampu memetik manfaat upaya mitigasi ini. Semoga tidak bernasib malang seperti AR/CDM Forestry, karena hingga akhir tahun komitmen, tidak satupun ada implementasinya di Indonesia.
Informasi REDD :
Satgas REDD + : http://www.satgasreddplus.org/
REDD Indonesia : http://www.redd-indonesia.org/
Master Thesis : Characteristic Habitat of Catchment area and Demographic Parameter of Harvested Population of Amyda cartilaginea (Boddaert, 1770) in Central Kalimantan Province.
MIRTA SARI, Under supervision of YANTO SANTOSA and
LILIK BUDI PRASETYO.
Amyda cartilaginea (Boddaert 1770) is one harvested turtle species in Indonesia, mainly for consumption purpose in oriental countries. In order to prevent over-exploitation and the declining of the population, harvesting has been limited by quota. However, there is still too few supporting data, that can be used as a basis to determine the quota. The research was aimed to identify habitat characteristics of catchment area, and also the demography and morphometric parameters of A. cartilaginea in Central Kalimantan Province. The result showed that harvested population of A. cartilaginea was dominated by adult females within the range weight of 3 – 5 kilograms of body mass. Two statistical tests were applied to describe the characteristic habitat of catchment area of A. cartileginea in Central Kalimantan. Chi-square test on the types of land cover suggested that A. cartileginea catchment area had a specific condition. Index Neu showed that the habitat of catchment area were swamp and river (w=10,17; w=6,28 respectively). Binary logistic regression was used to construct a model which explained the dominant variables influencing the number of A. cartileginea at a certain point of habitat. There were four biophysical variables that significantly drove the number of catchment of A. cartileginea, and all were negatively correlated with its catchment.
Keywords : Amyda cartilaginea, demographyc parameters, morphometric parameters, habitat characteristics, habitat usage, preference of habitat.
Corresponding Author : Mirta Sari (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Master Thesis : Nest Distribution of Carettochelys insculpta Ramsay 1886 at Vriendschap river, Asmat District, Papua
Richard Gatot Nugroho Triantoro, MD.Kusrini, & LB.Prasetyo
Carettochelys insculpta (pig-nosed turtle) is one of protected species the Labi-Labi, which can be found only in southern Papua. Its distribution spread from the Merauke to Kaimana. Information of C. insculpta is very limited, such as its distribution and population status. Unfortunately, pressure and threats to C. insculpta are increasing inline with development in Papua. Information of distribution and population is very important for its future management. For those reasons, this study aims to determine the pattern of distribution and nesting habitat selection of C. insculpta in the Vriendschap river, Asmat regency, Papua. The study was conducted on 8 to 25 November 2011. The method used is survey with the transect system. Analysis of data on nesting habitat in Descriptive while the distribution pattern of nests made by the Ratio Variety Method and the Index Method. The results showed the distribution pattern of nests and tracks C. insculpta in Vriendschap River region iwas clumped with the parameters that most influence the presence of nest amount and tracks on the nest and laying sand is parameter of the vegetation cover area. Distribution of nests and tracks were found clustered in the Obokain region whose position is at the center of the length of the Vriendschap River.
Corresponding author : email@example.com
Master Thesis : Spatial Modelling for Distribution and Habitat Suitability of Invasive Alien Species Kirinyuh (Austroeupatorium inulifolium (Kunth) R. M. King & H. Rob) in Mandalawangi Resort Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park)
Marlenni Hasan, Agus Hikmat, Lilik Budi Prasetyo
The existence of invasive alien species influenced the ecosystem, and at the same time could not be controlled. This could cause disturbance of ecosystem function and also declined forest value, ecologically and economically. Some national parks have been facing serious threat caused by invasive alien species and 37 species were identified in Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park (GGPNP). It is important to carry out this research in GGPNP since the information on the distribution and habitat suitability for invasive alien species, especially for kirinyuh, is still limited. The objectives of this research were to determine the distribution and habitat suitability model for kirinyuh and the suitability degree of GGPNP as habitat for kirinyuh. Binary Logistic Regression Analysis and Principal Component Analysis were used to predict probability of habitat suitability for kirinyuh. Fifty percent of recorded data was used to build a predictive model and the rest was used to validate the model. Habitat requirements were analyzed and quantified from digital topographic maps, ASTER DEM and Landsat 7 ETM+. The result showed that predictive model of habitat suitability for kirinyuh was affected by elevation, NDMI, NDVI, distance to farmland and distance to trail. The result suggested Principal Component Analysis was more appropriate than Binary Logistic Regression.
Keywords: habitat suitability, binary logistic regression analysis, principal component analysis, kirinyuh, Resort Mandalawangi Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park, GIS
Corresponding author : Marlenni Hasan (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Land cover changes before and after implementation of the PHBM program in the Kuningan District, West Java, Indonesia
Lilik Budi PRASETYO1*, Ellyn Kathalina DAMAYANTI1, and Misa MASUDA2
1Faculty of Forestry, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), 2Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba
The State Forestry Corporation, hereinafter called Perhutani, has been implementing a program called the Management of Forest Resources with the Community or Pengelolaan Sumberdaya Hutan Bersama Masyarakat (hereinafter called PHBM) since 2001 in an attempt to protect and conserve the existing forest while alleviating poverty. Our research was aimed at examining land cover changes during pre-implementation (1997–1999) and after implementation of the PHBM (1999–2009). Further analysis was conducted to compare forest cover changes in PHBM and non-PHBM villages during 1999–2009. The results show that forest cover decreased during 1997–1999. However, during 1999–2009, reforestation increased markedly across the entire study area, in both PHBM and non-PHBM villages, although PHBM villages had higher increases in reforestation. Even under population pressure, reforestation was successful in PHBM villages because the people were aware of the current and future benefits of the PHBM, and people realized that the government was acknowledging the property rights of local peoples. The PHBM also provides a secure feeling since the government and the Perhutani program assured the people that the program would be fully implemented.
Keywords: community involvement, land cover changes, forest cover changes, Kuningan District, Perhutani, PHBM
Journal of Japanese Tropical Ecology/TROPICS (in press)
Corresponding author : Lilik Budi Prasetyo (email@example.com)
Dolly Priatna 1,2,*, Yanto Santosa 1 , Lilik B. Prasetyo1 and Agus P. Kartono1
1Department of Forest Resources Conservation & Ecotourism, Faculty of Forestry, Bogor Agricultural University, Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 16680, Indonesia, 2The Zoological Society of London – Indonesia Programme, Jl. Gunung Gede I/11A, Bogor 16151, Indonesia
The ranging behaviour of translocated problem tigers is poorly understood. The demand for releasing problem tigers back to the wild increases following the increasing the num-ber of problem tigers that needs to be rescued in Sumatra in the last decade. In this study we estimate the home range size and obtain information on daily range of four translocated problem tigers, as well as discussing some potential factors determining the size of home range and their movement. We translocated four adult males Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae) caught after killing domestic animals or rescued from traps set up by villagers for capturing deer and wild boar. The tigers were released fol-lowing 16-225 days rehabilitation. All were fitted with global positioning system collars and released 74-1,350 km from their capture site. The length of time needed by each tiger for establishing home range was between 6 and 13 weeks. The home range size of each individual tiger estimated with 100% minimum convex polygon varies between 67.1 km2 and 400 km2, while estimations with a 95% fixed kernel methods were between 37.5 km2 and 188.1 km2. The difference in home range size established by each translo-cated tigers indicates the variability of the range size even within a subspecies. The maximum distance moved each tiger in one day was different, the range was 8.5-18.9 km. Although preliminary, these data may be useful for improving future translocation of problem tiger, as this study was the first ever conducted in Sumatra.
Key words. GPS collar, Panthera tigris, home range, movement, Sumatran tiger, translocation
Corresponding author : Dolly.Priatna@zsl.org
Bachelor : Surface Temperature Distribution for Consideration of Green Space Development in Sidoarjo Regency
by : REZA PRADIPTA
Under supervision : Lilik B.Prasetyo & Badriyah Rushayati
Sidoarjo Regency had an advantage economic development due to its location bordered to Surabaya City. The increased space requirement for trade & industrial area forced to green space conversion., resulted in temperature increase. Research aims is to evaluate and build the relationship models between the green space distance with surface temperature and provide an alternative green space development in Sidoarjo Regency.
To achieve this goal remote sensing data of Landsat 7 ETM were used. Satellite image processing is done to determine the land cover classification and surface temperature estimation in Sidoarjo Regency. Sample points for regression analysis were determined manually, on the buil-up areas. Distance the points to each land cover types (grass and bush, rice field, farm, close vegetation and sparse vegetation ) were made based on Eucledian Distance.
The regression result was presented in the formula below.
y = 28,7 + 0,00348 x1 + 0,593 Ln x2 + 0,565 Ln x3
where x1 is a distance of observation point to grass and bush, x2 is a distance of observation point to farm and x3 is a distance of observation point to rare vegetation.
Based the above equation, close vegetation does not affect significantly to surface temperature because its area was very small. Alternative green space development should be done on location with a high surface temperature, namely : area is around PT Tjiwi Kimia, Sidoarjo and Waru district, Krian-Tarik by pass roads, and roads around the area of Porong mudflow.
Green space development at Sidoarjo Regency could be also promoted by planting trees, creating a vertical garden on home yard, planting and enriching the river border green space, planting and enriching green space of roads and creating a vertical garden at the office or industrial site.
Corresponding Author : Reza (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Keywords: Remote sensing, green space, surface temperature.
Dissertation Seminar : Habitat Suitability Modeling of Javan Rhino (Rhinoceros sondaicus Desmarest, 1822) in Ujung Kulon National Park)
U. Mamat Rahmat, Yanto Santosa, Lilik B. Prasetyo dan Agus P. Kartono
Javan rhino (Rhinoceros sondaicus Desmarest, 1822) is the rarest species among five species of rhino in the world. Distribution of javan rhino is limited in Ujung Kulon National Park, Indonesia. Because of small population size and its limited distribution so is it listed in Redlist by the IUCN as critically endangered species. The main objectives of this research are: 1) to identify dominant habitat components that determine the presence of Javan Rhinoceros in UKNP, 2) to analyze habitat suitability of Javan rhino (Rhinoceros sondaicus Desmarest 1822) in UKNP using Geographical Information System. The results found that there were eight compnents identified to be the crucial for javan rhino habitat and appropriate for spatial modeling of habitat suitability, i.e. distance from the road patrol, distance from the wallow, distance from the river, distance from the beach, distance from the rumpang (open area), slope, elevation and leaf area index. The most dominant factor influencing the frequency of the javan rhino are slope, distance from the rumpang, distance from the wallow and distance from the beach (P<0,005; R2 81,14%). Spatial model of habitat suitability result 11% patches of low suitability, 23,7% patches of moderate suitability and 65,2% patches of high suitability. The validity of the model was 88,57%.
Keywords: javan rhino, habitat suitability, preference, spatial modeling
Seminar paper can be downloaded here [doc]
Corresponding author : U.Mamat Rahmat Rahmat <email@example.com>;