Dissertation : Habitat and Distribution of Javan Leopard (Panthera pardus melas Cuvier, 1809) in Fragmented Landscape in Central Java-Indonesia

Hendra Gunawan*,  Lilik Budi Prasetyo,  Ani Mardiastuti, Agus P.Kartono


Javan leopard (Panthera pardus melas Cuvier, 1809) is limited distributed in Java Island. Its population is continually decreasing so it listed in Redlist by the IUCN as critically endangered species. The decrease was mainly caused by fragmentation and degradation of forest. The objectives of this research are to map the distribution, to identify the habitat characteristics, to  measure the fragmentation of natural forest and to make a spatial model of habitat suitability.The Methods were included GPS mapping of population, habitat analyses, fragmentation analyses using patch analyst and spatial modeling of habitat suitability using Arcview 3.2.The results found that there are 48 locations of javan leopards that distributed in five types of forest, i.e. pines plantation (43,8%), teak plantation (27,1%), natural mountain forest (14,5%), mixed plantation forest (8,3%) and natural lowland forest (6,3%). Javan leopard have preference to certain type of forest (P>0,05). There are eight components that crucial for habitat of javan leopard and relevant for spatial modeling of habitat suitability, i.e. patch extent, prey, forest vegetation, climate, water, topography, altitude and status of forest. Fragmentation in the last 16 years has reduced 88,0% of total natural forest area in central Java and increase the number of patches, total edge and edge density. Javan leopards are distributed in non-equilibrium, mainland-islands, classic and patchy metapopulations. Spatial model of habitat suitability result 21,39% patches of low suitability, 32,52% patches of moderate suitability and 46,09% patches of high suitability. The model are significantly valid with actual distribution of javan leopards (P<0,05).

Keywords: habitat, distribution, leopard, fragmentation, metapopulation, suitability

* Corresponding Author : Hendra Gunawan

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